1:00 pm Moderate Breezes and Clear Weather. In getting under way the Fore Topsail Yard broke in the Slings from being decayed. Got another up immediately and proceeded.
4:00 pm Tacked. Dunnose W½S & Culver Clift N½W distance 2 leagues.
8:00 pm Fresh Gales and hazey Weather in 2nd Reefs. Dunnose NBE 3 leagues.
12:00 am Dunnose NBW½W 3 leagues.
8:00 am Dunnose NEBN 5 or 6 leagues. Wind not so fresh and the Weather getting Cloudy.
11:00 am Wore Ship to the Westward.
12:00 pm Moderate and Cloudy much Sea from the Westward. Dunnose North 6 leagues. Thermometer upon Deck 51½°.
I have omitted to mention that to Assist me in this Voyage Sir Joseph Banks ordered me to be supplied with One of Mr. Larcum Kendals Time Keepers.
On the 5th November I took the Time Keeper to Mr. Bayley at the Observatory at Portsmouth, and by the 10th it was found to be fast for Mean Time at Greenwich 1″.89 and its rate gaining 1″.8 per day, but from this to the 28th it fluctuated very much and was much affected by heat or Cold, and I now took it on board with its Error 1′29″.70 too fast for Mean Time at Greenwich and its rate of going 6″.4 gaining per 24 hours.
To Exemplify my Log of the proceedings of the Ship it is to be Observed, That by Cloudy Weather is to be understood the Sun is not to be seen or but very seldom.
Fair Weather or Open Cloudy Weather is when the Sun can be frequently seen, but the Sky not free of Clouds.
Fine Weather is when the Sky is generally Clear and pleasant, but few Clouds and not Windy.
Hazey may be applied to either One or the other, and then it is to be understood the boundary of Sight is not so extensive as at other times. All other expressions respecting the Weather will be generally understoon without error.
There will be always three Columns of Longitude kept, the first D.R. or what is called dead reckoning or reckoning by Account from the place last Sailed from, the Second is T.K. or (a) Longitude by the Time Keeper from the nearest Observations; and the last is that found from Lunar Observation carried on from time to time by applying the difference of Longitude from day to day made by the Time Keeper, and is marked L. & T.K. signifying Lunar & Time Keeper.
The Log will always be marked in proportion of fifty feet to Thirty Seconds of Time, and the mean height of the Eye above the level of the Sea is equal to 3′18″ agreeable to which with the Declinations according to the different Meridians will all the Latitudes be determined.
All series of Lunar Observations will be reduced to one time by the Assistance of the Time Keeper, and the Instruments I shall always make use of are, (b) One 10 Inch and (c) One 14 Inch of Ramsdens Sextants, and (d) One 12 Inch of Troughtons all of which I consider to be exceedingly perfect. It is to be noted also that whenever any Point of Land is Observed to be on the Meridian or Parallel, the time from Noon is exactly mentioned that its Situation may be more accurately determined.
The Observations for the Variation of the Compass will always be made on the Binnacle and taken by the Suns shadow through each end of the Vane, so that there will be two observations from each Compass, by which means any error in the construction of the Instrument will be corrected. They are two Compasses of Adams's. one will be marked A. and the other B. and the back Observation will be called Turned. (a) Found always by the last established Rate at the Port sailed from. (b) Marked B. (c) Marked C. (d) Marked H.