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Revised 2014-09-24

Court-Martial
James Morrison Defense, Mon, Sep 17, 1792

[I have eliminated the italics others have used for Mr. Morrison's underlinings. Having transcribed much of his work, I have come to the conclusion that it was more of a nervous habit, than an intention to emphasize.]

JAMES MORRISON being called on for his Defence, he delivered a Paper Writing to the Court containing his Defence, which was read by the Judge Advocate and is hereto annexed.

Apr 28, 1789

Consious of my own Innocence of Evry Article of the Charge Exhibited against me, and fully saitisfied of my Zeal for His Majesty's service, I offer the following Narration, in Vindication of my Conduct on the 28th day of April 1789.

Apr 28, 1789

I was Boatswain's Mate of His Majesty's Ship "Bounty," and had the Watch on deck from eight till twelve on the Night of the 28th. of April, 1789. When I came on deck, Mr. Fryer, who was an Officer of the Watch, ordered me aft to the Conn, as Peter Linkletter, the Quarter Master, complaind that he could not keep his Watch. There was little wind all the Watch, and we were then Near the Island of Tofoa; I suppose about 8 or Nine Leagues off.

I staid at the Conn till 12 O'Clock; when I was releiv'd by John Norton, Quarter Master, and went to my hammock; and slept till daylight; when Mr. Cole the Boatswain waked me, and told me the Ship was taken, and that Mr. Christian had made the Captain prisoner; and then said, "I hope, Morrison, you have no intention to join Christian's party?"

I answerd him, "No, Sir, you may depend upon it, that I will not; it is far from my intentions." He then left me, and I hurried on my Cloaths, went up the fore scuttle, and into the Head to look round about me, when I soon found the truth of what Mr. Cole had said, and saw Jn. Williams on the Fore Castel with a Musquet and fix'd Bayonet, Wm. M'Coy and Robt. Lamb at the fore hatchway, Isaac Martin and Wm. Brown on the after part of the Booms, and Henry Heildbrant on the Quarter deck, all Arm'd in the same manner; Captain Bligh was on the larboard Side of the quarter deck between the Guns, with his hands tied behind him and Mr. Christian standing by him with a bayonet in one hand and the other on Captain Bligh's Shoulder. The small boat was then Out and some hands were Clearing the large Cutter, and Chas. Churchill on the booms giving directions with a drawn cutlass in his hand.

I staid but a few Minutes in the head, when I came Aft and met Mr. Cole at the forehatchway and asked him, "What was to be done?" he told me he did not know, but desired me to assist in Clearing the Cutter; Jn. Smith at the same time came forward with a bottle of Rum and a Glass; of which he gave me a glass saying, "you may as well have a drop, Morrison, Tho' I am ordered to serve none but the Centinels." I took the rum and went about Clearing the Cutter and got her out, when Chas. Norman, who was then in the small Cutter complaining that he could not keep her free. She was got in, and in the Meantime Mr. Christian Ordered Chas. Churchill to see Mr. Hayward, Mr. Hallet, Mr. Fryer, and Mr. Samuel, into the boat, telling them himself at the same time to get ready to go on shore with the Captain. Mr. Cole, Mr. Purcell, some others then went to Mr. Christian and beg'd for the Long boat, which after some hesitation was granted and Orders given for getting her out. I went about Clearing her, and while I was thus Emply'd Mr. Fryer came to me and asked me if I had any hand in the Mutiny. I told him No! He then desired Me to see Who I could find to Assist me and try to rescue the Ship. I told him I fear'd it was then too late, but would do my endeavour, when Jn. Millward, who stood by Me, and heard what Mr. Fryer said, swore he would stand by Me if an Opportunity Offered. Mr. Fryer was about to Speak again, but was prevented by Mathw. Quintrell, who, with a pistol in one hand, Collar'd him with the Other saying, "Come, Mr. Fryer, you Must go down into your Cabbin," and hauled him away. Churchill then Came, and shaking his Cutlass at Me, demanded what Mr. Fryer said. I told him that he Only aske'd me if they were going to have the Long-boat; upon Which Alexdr. Smith, who stood on the Opposite side of the boat, said "It's a dam'd lye Charley, for I saw him and Millward shake hands when the Master spoke to them." Churchill then said to me, "I would have you mind how you Come on, for I have my Eye upon you." Smith at the same time Calld out, "Stand to your arms, for they intend to make a Rush."

This, as it was intended, put the Mutineers on their Guard, and I found it Necessary to be very Cautious how I Acted, and I heard Captain Bligh say to Smith, "I did not expect you would be against me, Smith"— but I could not hear what answer he made.

However, I proceeded in Clearing the boat, and when she was hoisted out I heard Mr. Christian order Churchill to see that no Arms were put into her, to keep Norman, McIntosh and Coleman in the Ship, and get the Officers into the boat as fast as possible while Churchill was putting his Orders into execution I was employ'd in getting a Towline and Grapnell and sundry other articles into the boat, but she in the meantime was got so full and so deep that those who were in her began to Cry out that she would sink alongside if any more came into her; upon which Captain Bligh said, "you can't all go in the Boat, my lads; don't overload her, some of you must stay in the Ship." Captain Bligh then ask'd Mr. Christian to let the Master and some of the Men remain in the Ship, to which he replied, "The Men may stay, but the Master must go with you," and Ordered Mr. Fryer to go into the Boat Imediately.

Mr. Fryer beg'd permission to stay, but to no purpose, and he was forced to go into the Boat; on seeing Mr. Fryer and Most of the Officers go into the boat without the least Appearance of an effort to rescue the Ship I began to reflect on my own Situation and seeing the situation of the boat, and Considering that she was at least 1000 leagues from any friendly Settlement and Judging by what I had seen of the Friendly Islanders but a few days before, that nothing Could be expected from them but to be plunder'd, or killd, and seeing no Choice but of one evil, I chose, as I thought, the least, to stay in the Ship, especially as I Considered it as Obeying Captain Bligh's Orders, and depending on his promise to do Justice to those who remaind, I informed Mr. Cole of my Intention, who made me the like promise, taking me by the hand and saying, "God bless you, my boy, I will do you Justice if ever I reach England."

I also inform'd Mr. Thos. Hayward of My intention, and on his droping a hint to me that he intended to knock Chas. Churchill down I told him I would second him, pointing at some of the Friendly Island Clubbs which were sticking in the Booms and telling him there were tools enough!

I was heartily rejoiced to think that any Officer intended to make an Attempt, but was as suddenly damp'd to find that he went into the Boat without making the Attempt he had proposed, and now gave over all hopes, and resolved to bear my fate with as much fortitude as I was Able.

As Soon as Captain Bligh was in the Boat she was wore Astern. I went aft and on hearing Captain Bligh request some provisions I got all the pork which was in the harness Casks, twenty five or six pieces, and handed into the boat. I also got two large Gourds of Water out of my Own birth which contain'd from 3 to 4, Gallons each; these I also handed in, and on Captain Bligh's desiring me to get him a Musquet or two I went to Christian and beg'd him to let me give one into the Boat, but was refused; when on making further intersession he Ordered four Cutlasses, two of which I handed in my self and Churchill brought the other two and said, "There, Captain Bligh! you don't stand in Need of fire arms as you are Going among your friends."

There being little wind, Christian said, "They will make better at their Oars than wait to be tow'd." Notice of this being given to those in the Boat, Mr. Cole asked for some thing to sling the Masts over the side that they might be the better able to work at their Oars; on hearing this I procured a Ball of Spun yarn and gave into the Boat.

She was now Cast off and Christian call'd me to hoist in the Cutter. I heard Captain Bligh desire to speak to Mr. Christian, but he gave Orders that no person should answer.

With respect to the Evidence given against me, it has been said that from my alacrity in assisting to Clear the Boats, and get them out, it would appear, as if I rather favoured those in Arms; But! it has been fully proved to this Honorable Court that the Boats were only granted after Much solicitation by the Officers who intended quitting the Ship; and if the Launch had not been prepared with the utmost expedition the Chief of the Mutineers might have recall'd his grant.

I acted in this, by order of Mr. Cole, the Boatswain, nor can more Guilt (if it can be deem'd such be imputed to me in this particular than to Himself, Who hoisted them out, or to the Carpenter and his Crew who were also active in preparing them.

My Countenance has also been compared with that of another employ'd on the same business. This Honorable Court knows that all Men do not bear misfortunes with the same fortitude or equanimity of Mind, and that the face is too often a bad index to the Heart.

If there were No sorrow mark'd in my Countenance, it was to deceive those whose Act I abhorred, that I might be at liberty to seize the first Opportunity that might appear favourable, to the retaking of the Ship.

The Evidence who drew this Comparison has Owned that it did not then appear to him I was Concerned in the Mutiny, and that it was only an opinion formed, from not finding me in the Boat.

An Opinion so founded will, I trust, have no Weight with this Honorable Court, having no foundation whereupon it may rest.

So uncertain is the Judging of Countenances, that Captain Bligh declares in his letter, from the Carpenter's sullen and ferocious aspect, he took him to be one of the Chief Mutineers; which unfavourable Opinion was entirely overthrown by his bearing him Company in the Boat; but, had he chosen to remain in the Ship, to an Uncertain (and Judging by Appearances) inevitable fate in the Boat, such Conjecture would have been thought well grounded on him, though his innocence would have been equally strong, to a being who Could have discerned his Inward Soul.

It has been fully proved and Owned that I was not the only person who bore no active part in the Mutiny that wish'd to remain in the Ship, had they been permitted; and I Humbly conceive it is impossible to say who might have staid had permission been granted.

Let the Members of this Honorable Court Suppose themselves in my then unfortunate situation, and it will appear doubtful even to them, Which alternative they would have taken.

A Boat alongside already crowded, those who were in her Crying Out she would sink, and Captain Bligh desiring no more might go in, with a slender stock of Provisions; what hope could there be to reach any Friendly Shore, or withstand the boisterous attacks of Hostile Elements? The Perils those underwent who reached the Island of Timor, and whom Nothing but the Apparent Interference of Divine Providence could have saved, fully justify my fears, and prove beyond a Doubt, that they rested on a solid foundation; for by staying in the Ship an opportunity might offer of escaping, but by going in the Boat nothing but Death appeared, either from the lingering torments of Thirst and Hunger, or from the Murderous Weapons of Cruel Savages, or being Swallowed up by the Deep.

Mr. Hayward in Saying there were other Boats, which those who had chosen might have got into, tacitly acknowledges that the Launch was then as deep as she could swim, and which also fully appears from Mr. Fryer and the Carpenter's Evidence to have been the Case.

As to the suggestion of having another Boat, This Honorable Court is well informed that the small Cutter, by reason of her defective Bottom, would not swim; is it therefore in the least probable that Christian would have granted me the large Cutter, the only Boat then remaining; and the only one fit for Service? Or even should I go so far as to allow she would have been granted, it would have been Madness in me to have got into a heavy Boat by myself without Water or provision, for, after having with much assiduity and Intreaty, only procured so Small a quantity for the Number Crowded into the Launch, Could I have expected anything for myself? And Might I not have Perished with Hunger, thirst, and fatigue, without getting one Mile nearer the Land, or if I had reached it, from the reception those met with in the Launch would not a cruel death have been my portion: for such a disposition I conceived the Natives to be of.

It has also been said that when the Boat veerd astern, I appeared by the Taffarel under Arms. Amidst such a Crowd, Tumult, and Confusion Might not the Arms in the hands of another wedged by my side easily be thought to be in my possession? And might not the Voice of another easily have been taken for mime? To what purpose should I have Armed myself when all Apprehensions of an Attempt to retake the Ship must have been over?

Had I approved of the Mutiny and wish'd to Arm myself to Assist in putting it into Execution, I surely would not have defered till the Officers and the Men who accompanied them were placed in a helpless situation, where they Could have no recourse to Arms and could make no Effectual attack on those who had assumed the Command.

Had I approved of the violence carried into execution, would I have been so active in procuring subsistance for those whom by so doing I gave perhaps the Only Chance they could have of reaching an European Settlement, and appearing against me at a Bar of Justice?

I have endeavoured to recall to Mr. Hayward's remembrance a proposal he at one time made by Words; of attacking the Mutineers, and of my encouraging him to the Attempt, promising to back Him with all the Efforts I was capable of making—He says he has but a feint recollection of the business, so feint indeed, that he cannot recall to his Memory the particulars: but owns there was something pass'd to that purpose.

Feint as the Remembrance is (which for me is the more unfortunate) ought it not to do away with all doubt with respect to the Motives by which I was then Influenced?

If I Offered to second the Only Attempt that was proposed for the recovery of the Ship, and which to me appear'd practicable if put in Execution, Could My Heart be on the side of the Mutineers? No! If I had wish'd them to succeed would I not Immediately have left him and put them on their Guard? Besides, it fully proves by Mr. Hayward's disclosing his Mind to me, that he had unlimited Confidence in my Attachment to Him, or he would not have expressed himself to one of who's intentions he was doubtful, in that Manner.

After the Members of this Honorable Court have Maturely weigh'd in their Minds, these Circumstances which to me are of the Utmost Importance, if any doubts remain in their Minds with respect to my Innocence on that fatal Day; it has always been Accounted the Glory of Justice in a doubtful Case to throw Mercy into the Ballance, when, I doubt not, I shall be acquitted of so black a Crime.

Resting with entire confidence on the Humanity and Integrity of this Honorable Court, I humbly wait its Awful decision.

I beg leave most humbly to remind the Members of this Honorable Court that I did freely and of my Own Accord deliver myself up to Lieutenant Robt. Cornor, of His Majesty's Ship "Pandora," on the first Certain Notice of Her Arrival.

JAMES MORRISON.

[With his defence Morrison handed in the following evidence as to character.]

I do certify that Mr. James Morrison served as a Midshipman on board His Majesty's Sloop "Termagant" under my command during the year 1782, and I perfectly recollect his conduct met with my entire approbation, not only for sobriety and attention to his duty, but I have ever found he paid due respect to his superiors, and that he was always obedient to command.

London, September 3rd, 1792,
CHARLES STIRLING.

Captain Stirling encloses Mr. Morrison a certificate of good behaviour whilst serving under his command on board the "Termagant"; and he most earnestly hopes that as Mr. M. at that time behaved...*well he will now be able to vindicate his character from the charge exhibited against him.

Bryanston Street,
   Sept. 3rd. 1792.

*[Indecipherable.]

Mr. FRYER called in again.

Examined by JAMES MORRISON—

Q. Did you ever see me under arms on the Day of the 28th. of April, particularly on the Tafrail after the Boat was astern or know that I made use of any sneering Expressions?

A. No.

Apr 28, 1789

Q. Do you know what Watch I was on, in the Ship, and what Watch I had on the 28th. of April?

A. In my Watch, in the first Watch on the preceding Evening.

Q. Do you recollect the Circumstances of the Pork being handed in over the Stern, or was there any in the Boat before that time?

A. I know that there was some Pork handed in, but by whom I cannot tell, neither do I know that there was any Pork in the Boat before.

Q. Do you know that there were such Things as two Gourds of Water handed into the Boat?

A. I know that they were in the Boat, but I do not recollect seeing them handed in.

Q. Do you recollect the Cutlasses coming into the Boat, and by whom they were handed in?

A. I recollect the Cutlasses being lowered down by a Rope, but by whom I cannot tell.

Q. As I was in your Watch during the Voyage you must be a Judge of my Conduct and you'll therefore explain it to the Court, giving my Character at large?

A. A steady, sober, attentive, good Man.

By the Court—

Q. You have said that you did not see him armed nor hear him make use of any sneering Expression; if he had done so was your situation such that you must have seen and heard him?

A. I must have seen him if he had been armed, and if he had made use of any approbious Language I must have heard him.

By JAMES MORRISON—

Q. You acknowledged in a former Evidence that had you remained in the Ship I should have been one of the first whom your would have called upon to assist you in your Plan; do you now confirm that Evidence?

A. Yes.

By the COURT—

Q. When the Prisoner Morrison told you to go down to your Cabin, that it was now too late, in what light did you consider that Advice?

A. It struck me at the Time that he was afraid of being over heard by the People, who were under Arms behind me, guarding me down, that he did not speak in a jeering contemptuous Manner.

The Witness withdrew.

Mr. WILLIAM COLE called in again.

Examined by JAMES MORRISON—

Q. Do you recollect seeing me under Arms at the Time of the Mutiny on board the "Bounty" or hearing me make use of any sneering expressions—particularly over the Stern?

A. I did not see him under Arms—I heard him say that if anybody asked for him, to let them know that he was to the Southward of the Line or something to that Purport.

Q. Do you recollect the Circumstance of the Pork being handed into the Boat and if it was not by me, can you point any Person out who did hand it in?

A. I know the Pork was put into the Boat, but by whom I cannot say.

Q. Do you recollect that it was by the Clumsiness and Awkwardness of John Norton, that two or three Pieces of the Pork went overboard and that you damned his Clumsy Eyes, and shoved him away from receiving any more of it?

A. No, I do not remember it—I know three or four Pieces went over board.

Q. Do you remember the Gourds of Water being in the Boat?

A. Yes, two; I do not know that there was Water in more than one.

Q. Do you remember previous to the Mutiny that there were two Gourds in our Birth, the Property of myself and Messmates?

A. I can't say what they have in their Messes.

Q. Be pleased to give my Character at large to the Court?

A. He was a Man of very good Character in the Ship; he was Boatswain's Mate and steered the Captain; he was attentive to his duty, and I never knew any harm of him in my life.

By the COURT—

Q. When you heard the Prisoner Morrison say that if anybody enquired for him, you should answer, he was to the Southward of the Line, or Words to that Nature, were those Words spoken in a jeering Manner or did he seem to be in Sorrow, at being left behind in the Ship?

A. They sounded to me as tho' they were spoken jeeringly.

The Witness withdrew.

WILLIAM PURCELL called in again.

Examined by JAMES MORRISON—

Q. Did you see me under Arms on the Tafrail?

A. I did not.

Q. Did you hear me use any jeering speeches?

A. I did not.

Q. Did you hear me deliver a Message to Mr. Elphinstone, the Master's Mate?

A. I did not.

Q. Be pleased to give my Character to the Court?

A. I always saw him diligent, and attentive, during the time I was in the Ship.

By the COURT—

Q. Was you so situated that had he been armed, or made use of any jeering Expressions you must have seen or heard him?

A. I cannot tell.

Q. Did you hear the Prisoner speak at all after you was astern in the Boat?

A. I cannot say that I did.

Q. While you was astern in the Boat did you hear any Person from the Ship make use of jeering Language?

A. Yes, but I cannot charge my Memory with who it was.

Q. Did you hear any Person desire that if Enquiries were made for them, it should be said that they were Southward of the Line or Words to that Nature?

A. No.

Q. Do you know if Morrison gave you either Arms, Provisions or Water at the time you were in the Boat?

A. I do not.

The Witness withdrew.


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